Developing and Implementing a School-led Motor Intervention for Children with Handwriting Difficulties

Publication authors

Katy A. Shire , Jo Atkinson , Emily A. Williams , John Pickavance , Sara Magallón , Liam JB. Hill , Amanda H. Waterman , David A. Sugden & Mark Mon-Williams


We describe the development of an evidence-based motor intervention and an implementation pilot study in ten primary schools, involving 515 children (4–11 years). ‘Helping Handwriting SHINE’ (HHS) is a novel, school-led, group-based handwriting intervention. Teaching staff delivered HHS and provided feedback through a questionnaire, reporting that: (i) the children found the tasks enjoyable; (ii) the background and booklet instructions were easy to understand, (iii) there was a need for more comprehensive staff training. The teaching staff made recommendations about session duration, group size, resource availability, and age differentiation of tasks. These suggestions are applicable to the development of any school-based group-led motor intervention, and we used this feedback to refine the HHS intervention. This study shows that implementing school-led motor interventions at scale is possible. Moreover, the work provides insights into the factors to consider when developing school-based motor interventions prior to conducting randomized controlled trials (RCT). The process outlined in this manuscript has led to an RCT to test the effectiveness of HHS within primary schools.