Parenting and Infant Temperament amongst Pakistani Women Living in the UK According to Country of Birth: Results from the Born in Bradford Cohort Study

Publication authors

Prady S, Kiernan K, Fairley L, Wright J


Some parenting behaviours and child characteristics can result in future behavioural problems. Relatively little is known about parenting behaviours in Pakistani-origin women, and how the timing of migration to the United Kingdom might affect such behaviours. We analysed differences in parenting behaviours and six-month infant temperament by mothers’ country of birth in a contemporary community cohort, Born in Bradford. We analysed data on 587 women of Pakistani origin and their infants by maternal country of birth. We used logistic regression to assess differences by country of birth on the most problematic quintile of psychometrically equivalised self-reported parental self-efficacy, warmth and hostility, and children’s temperament using two domains of the Infant Characteristics Questionnaire (fussy/difficult and unadaptable).We
adjusted for psychological distress, socio-demographic variables, questionnaire language, and child temperament in the parenting models. We also compared the self-rating of parental confidence. There was some evidence that mothers born in Pakistan were more likely to report a higher hostile style of parenting, which was associated with being in the United Kingdom for a shorter period/not using English. Mothers born in Pakistan were more likely to have greater confidence in their abilities as parents. Infants of women born in theUnited Kingdom were more likely to be classified as unadaptable.We saw little evidence of difference in parental warmth and self-efficacy. Our analyses indicate some potential differences in parenting behaviours in women of Pakistani origin living in the United Kingdom by country of birth, which may be related to acculturation. Further work is needed to understand how parenting practices are learned and applied in recent migrants.