Factors associated with the uptake of the UK routine childhood immunization schedule in a bi-ethnic population

Publication authors

Gillian Santorelli, Jane West, Dan Mason, Chris Cartwright, Leena Inamdar, Caroline Tomes, John Wright



Various factors associated with vaccination uptake in children have been identified, but no study has examined their overall immunization status and individual vaccine coverage at 1, 2 and 5 years in the UK.


Data from 6977 participants in the Born in Bradford cohort were linked to primary care records. Overall immunization status and individual vaccine uptake of the UK routine childhood vaccination schedule was estimated in White British and Pakistani children born between 2007 and 2011, and factors associated with partial uptake in each ethnic group were identified using Poisson regression.


Vaccine uptake was greater in Pakistani compared with White British children at all ages and for each year examined in this study. Children of foreign-born White British women were more likely to be partially immunized and those of foreign-born Pakistani women were more likely to be fully immunized. Socio-economic factors were strongly associated with uptake, especially among White British women.


Vaccination uptake is influenced by social and economic environment, ethnicity and maternal country of birth. This suggests that current health education and service delivery may not be effective for some families, including those from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds, who may require targeted interventions to improve immunization uptake.