Child educational progress in Born in Bradford pregnancies affected by gestational diabetes and also exposed to maternal common mental disorders

Publication authors

Wilson A, Claire; Santorelli, Gillian; Howard M, Louise; Ismail, Khalida, Reynolds M, Rebecca; Simonoff, Emily.


Gestational diabetes and the maternal mental disorders of anxiety and depression have been implicated in adverse offspring neuro-behavioural outcomes but these exposures have only been studied in isolation. 1051 children whose mothers were diagnosed with gestational diabetes in UK’s Born in Bradford cohort had linkage to maternal primary care records, providing diagnostic and treatment codes for depression and anxiety. Education record linkage provided results of the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile from the first year of school, aged five. Risk of not attaining a ‘Good level of development’ was analysed using multivariable Poisson regression within a generalised estimating equation framework. Multiple imputation was implemented for missing data. There was limited evidence of increased risk of failure to attain a ‘good level of development’ in those additionally exposed to maternal mental disorders (adjusted RR 1.21; 95% CI 0.94, 1.55). However, there was more evidence in children of Pakistani maternal ethnicity (adjusted RR 1.36; 95% CI 1.04, 1.77) than White British; this may have been driven by English not being the primary language spoken in the home. Therefore there may be groups with GDM in whom it is particularly important to optimise both maternal physical and mental health to improve child outcomes.